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Vitamins are no substitutes to healthy diets.  Please ask your dietitian or medical advisor before taking medications or vitamins.

Vitamins

Name

Function

Sources

Recommended Intakes

Deficiencies

Toxicity

Vitamin A
Retinol or
beta-carotene
hormone synthesis,
reproduction, bone
information, vision,
helps fight infection,
antioxidant (beta 
carotene form)
all green & red
fruits, vegetables, 
carrots, eggs, liver
1000g/day-males
800g/day-females

children

700g- ages 7-10
500g- ages 4-6
400g- ages 1-3
rough skin, night
blindness, bone 
growth, impaired
bone pain, loss of
appetite, liver 
disease, vomiting,
headache, blurred
vision, red blood
cell damage
Vitamin C
Ascorbic Acid
infection resistance,
antioxidant, iron
absorption, helps 
in production of red 
blood cells, vital to 
collagen formation
citrus fruits,
berries, mango,
onions, leafy green
vegetables, green
peppers, tomatoes
potatoes, papayas
New:
90mg -male
75mg-female
35-40mg children
ages 1-3
depression, scurvy
anemia, infections,
bleeding gums,
poor wound 
healing
red blood cells 
damage, nausea, 
diarrhea, nose-
bleeding
Vitamin D
Cholecalciferol,
Ergocalciferol
bone formation,
calcium absorption,
helps regulate heart
( calcium absorption) 
egg yolk, tuna,
liver, milk, daily 
products
5g/day-adults
10g/day-children
ages 1-24
abnormal growth,
soft bones, muscle
weakness, joint 
pain, rickets in 
children
weight loss, raised
blood calcium, 
irritability, kidney
stones, mental
& physical
retardation
Vitamin E
Tocopherols &
Tocotrienols
antioxidant, red 
blood cells protect.
promotes normal
clotting & healing,
cellular membrane 
stability
nuts, vegetable &
seed oils, wheat  
germ, milk, eggs, 
leafy vegetables,
meat
New
15mg/day for all 
adults
Old
10mg/day-males
8mg/day-females
red blood cell
damage, muscle
wasting, hemolytic
anemia, 
reproductive
failure
Possible general
discomfort 
Vitamin K
protein synthesis,
blood calcium
regulation, blood
clotting
green plants, liver,
spinach, kale,  
broccoli, cabbage-
type vegetables
70g/day-males
60g/day-females

children

55g- ages 15-18
45g- ages 11-14
30g- ages 7-10
hemorrhaging 
jaundice
Vitamin B-1
Thiamin
support: nervous
system, appetite;
necessary for 
proper metabolism
of sugar & starch
to provide energy
beef, pork, fish,
yeast, pasta, nuts
whole-grain bread
whole brown rice
soybeans
0.5mg/day for
adults & children
heart irregularity, 
mental confusion,
beriberi, edema,
central nervous
system 
complications
rare, weakness, insomnia, rapid
pulse
Biotin
Vitamin H &
Coenzyme R 
fat & glycogen 
synthesis, coenzyme
in energy metabolism
different food 
30-100g/day for
adults
30g/ for children 
ages 7-10
nausea, muscle
pain, depression,
loss of hair, loss 
of appetite, rash,
fatigue
none known
Vitamin B-2
Riboflavin
antibody production,
required for red 
blood cell formation,
necessary for good
vision, skin, hair & 
nails
milk, fish, eggs,
whole-grain 
bread, meat,
liver, dark green
vegetables
1.7mg/day- males
1.3mg/day-females
eye problems,  
sore throat, skin
disorders
none known
Vitamin B-6
Pyridoxine
essential for protein
utilization, red blood
cell formation, 
antibody formation
fish, meat, green
leaf vegetables, 
wheat bran, eggs,
milk, cabbage,
bananas
2.0mg/day males
1.6mg/day 
females
anemia, kidney 
stones, central
nervous system
disorders, 
angular stomatitis
fatigue, 
depression, 
irritability
Vitamin B-12
Cobalamin
blood building factor
nutrient for new 
growth, nervous
system maintenance
liver, meat, fish,
kidney, eggs, milk,
yeast, poultry
2.0g/day adults
1.4g/day for
children ages 7-10
anemia, fatigue,
paralysis, nerve
degeneration,
depression
none known
Vitamin B-3
Niacin
needed for healthy
skin, nerves &  
digestive system,
participates in  
enzymatic energy
release of energy
nutrients
lean meat, fish,
peanuts, poultry,
wheat germ, dates
figs, prunes, seeds
Niacin Equivalent
13-19NE/day for
adults 
9-13NE/day for 
children ages 1-10
diarrhea, pellagra,
loss of appetite,
weakness, fatigue
dermatitis on the  
parts espoused to
sun, irritability
skin flushing, low
low blood 
pressure, nausea,
liver abnormalities
Folate
Folic Acid, Folacin
protein metabolism,
new cell division,  
necessary for red
blood cell formation, 
reproduction & 
growth, helps 
reduce risk of neural 
tube birth defects
brewer's yeast, 
liver, green leaf 
vegetables, rice,
cereals, past, seeds
400g/day- adults
150g/day for
children - 11-14 
100g/day for 
children ages 7-10
diarrhea, anemia,
depression, smooth 
tongue
diarrhea,
insomnia,
irritability
Vitamin B-5
Pantothenic Acid
helps form certain
hormones & antibodies,
 helps to
convert fat & sugar 
to energy
organ meats, egg 
yolk, chicken, nuts 
brewer's yeast
whole grain cereal
4-7mg/day- adults
4-5mg/day for
children ages 7-10 
3-4mg/day for 
children ages 4-6
nausea, fatigue,
difficulty sleeping 
diarrhea